nor allow it to fall from Catholic control. The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas. Kingdom of Holland to William I (18061815) edit Administrative divisions of the First French Empire in 1812, illustrating the incorporation of the Netherlands and its internal reorganisation. Deze Otto I van Buren stichtte onder meer het kasteel in Buren en de Sint-Lambertuskerk. 212 After World War II both research-oriented and teaching-oriented historians have been rethinking their interpretive approaches to Dutch history, balancing traditional memories and modern scholarship. As the social distance between the Calvinists and Catholics narrowed (and they began to intermarry 187 it became possible to merge their parties. Bouwsma, "The Waning of the Middle Ages by Johan Huizinga." Daedalus 1974 103(1 3543. The tribes already within, or relocated to, this area became part of the Roman Empire. Due to these developments the 17th century has been dubbed the Golden Age of the Netherlands.
Its area of operations stretched from West Africa to the Americas, and the Pacific islands. However, though the new stadtholder acquired near-dictatorial powers, this did not improve the situation. Nelleke Bakker and Janneke Wubs, "A Mysterious Success: Doctor Spock and the Netherlands in the 1950s Paedagogica Historica (2002) 38#1. Also, the introduction of currency made trading a much easier affair than it had been before.
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Hans Knippenberg, "Secularization in the Netherlands in its historical and geographical dimensions GeoJournal (1998) 45#3. The VOC, one of the major European trading houses sailing the spice route to East Asia, had no intention of colonizing the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock. This treaty ended a forty-year period of warfare between France and Spain conducted in Italy from 1521 to 1559. 213 In terms of popular history, there has been an effort to ensure greater historical accuracy in museums and historic tourist sites. By 1650 the burgher families which had grown wealthy through commerce and become influential in government controlled the province of Holland, and to a large extent shaped national policies. The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands (1987) Milward, Alan. The Republic fought a series of three naval wars against England in 165274. 1535 in jstor Kossmann, Low Countries p 11233 Kossmann, Low Countries p 11516 Simon Schama, "The Rights of Ignorance: Dutch Educational Policy in Belgium 181530 History of Education (1972) 1:1,.
As climatic conditions improved, there was another mass migration of Germanic peoples into the area from the east. Businesspeople, scientists, engineers and artists from the Netherlands made important international contributions. Roman settlements in the Netherlands edit Roman settlements Starting about 15 BC, the Rhine, in the Netherlands came to be defended by the Lower Limes Germanicus. Every city and province had its own government and laws, and a large degree of autonomy. 195 In May 2011, the oecd ranked the Netherlands as the "happiest" country in the world. The Dutch did not mobilise their armed forces until shortly before France and the UK declared war on Germany in September 1939 after the invasion of Poland. 189 1, there was a retrenchment of the welfare system, especially regarding old-age pensions, unemployment benefits, and disability pensions/early retirement benefits.
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